Careful quotes place the true quantity between 30 and 40.

  1. See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:272–73.
  2. See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:277–302. Despite claims that Joseph Smith fathered kiddies within plural wedding, hereditary evaluating has up to now been negative, though it’s possible he fathered 2 or 3 young ones with plural spouses. (See Ugo A. Perego, “Joseph Smith, issue of Polygamous Offspring, and DNA Analysis, ” in Newell G. Bringhurst and Craig L. Foster, eds., The Persistence of Polygamy: Joseph Smith while the Origins of Mormon Polygamy Independence, MO: John Whitmer Books, 2010, 233–56. )
  3. J. Spencer Fluhman, “A Subject that may Bear Investigation’: Anguish, Faith, and Joseph Smith’s Youngest Plural Wife, ” in Robert L. Millet, ed., No tool Shall Prosper: New Light on Sensitive Issues (Provo and Salt Lake City: Brigham younger University Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2011), 104–19; Craig L. Foster, David Keller, and Gregory L. Smith, “The Age of Joseph Smith’s Plural spouses in Social and Demographic Context, ” in Bringhurst and Foster, eds., The Persistence of Polygamy, 152–83.
  4. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Autobiography, 2, Church History Library, Salt Lake City.

  5. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Plural wedding as Taught by the Prophet Joseph: an answer to Joseph Smith, Editor associated with Lamoni (Iowa) “Herald” (Salt Lake City: Juvenile teacher workplace, 1882); Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Why We Practice Plural wedding (Salt Lake City: Juvenile teacher workplace, 1884).
  6. Quotes for the wide range of these sealings are priced between 12 to 14. (See Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural spouses of Joseph Smith Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1997, 4, 6; Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:253–76, 303–48. ) For the very early summary with this training, see John A. Widtsoe, “Evidences and Reconciliations: Did Joseph Smith Introduce Plural Marriage? ” Improvement Period 49, no. 11 (Nov. 1946): 766–67.
  7. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:421–37. Polyandry, the wedding of just one girl to multiple guy, typically involves provided economic, domestic, and resources that are sexual and kids in many cases are raised communally. There’s absolutely no proof that Joseph Smith’s sealings functioned this way, and much proof works against that view.
  8. Rex Eugene Cooper, Promises built to the Fathers: Mormon Covenant Organization (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1990), 138–45; Jonathan A. Stapley, “Adoptive Sealing Ritual in Mormonism, ” Journal of Mormon History 37, no. 3 (summer time 2011): 53–117.
  9. For overview of the data, see Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:390–96.
  10. Richard Lyman Bushman, Joseph Smith: Rough Rock Rolling (Ny: Knopf, 2005), 440.
  11. See Lorenzo Snow, deposition, usa Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), component 3, p. 124.
  12. The revelation on wedding supplied incentives that are powerful a wedding performed by priesthood authority. (See Doctrine and Covenants 132:17–19, 63. )
  13. Zina Huntington Jacobs, autobiographical design, Zina Card Brown Family Collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; spelling modernized.
  14. The record that is historical striking when it comes to shortage of criticism discovered among those that had as soon as been Joseph Smith’s plural spouses, although all of the spouses left no written record.
  15. Joseph Smith, Journal, Aug. 16, 1842, in Andrew H. Hedges, Alex D. Smith, and Richard Lloyd Anderson, eds., Journals, amount 2: 1841–April 1843, vol. 2 of the Journals series of The Joseph Smith Papers, edited by Dean C. Jessee, Ronald K. Esplin, and Richard Lyman Bushman (Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2011), 93–96, available at; Mary Audentia Smith Anderson, ed., Joseph Smith III and the Restoration (Independence, MO: Herald House, 1952), 85 december.
  16. Jenson, “Historical Record, ” 229–30, 240; Emily Dow Partridge Young, deposition, usa Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), component 3, pp. 365–66, 384; Orson Pratt, in Journal of Discourses, 13:194.
  17. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:8, 48–50, 80; Bushman, harsh Stone Rolling, 473.
  18. Doctrine and Covenants 132:54, 64. The caution to Emma Smith additionally relates to all who get sacred ordinances by authority of this priesthood but don’t abide the covenants related to those ordinances. See, as an example, Psalm 37:38; Isaiah 1:28; Acts 3:19–25; and Doctrine and Covenants 132:26, 64.
  19. Doctrine and Covenants 132:61. In Utah, the wife that is first area of the plural wedding ceremony, standing between her spouse in addition to bride and putting the hand associated with the bride when you look at the hand for the spouse. “Celestial Marriage, ” The Seer 1 (Feb. 1853): 31.
  20. Doctrine and Covenants 132:65; see also Genesis 16:1–3.
  21. Jacob 2:30.
  22. Regarding the concern of children, see note 6 of “Plural Marriage and Families at the beginning of Utah. ”

  23. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, The Reason We Practice Plural Marriage, 23–24.
  24. Heber C. Kimball, Discourse, Sept. 2, 1866, George D. Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from Pitman shorthand by LaJean Purcell Carruth.
  25. Brigham younger, in Journal of Discourses, 3:266.
  26. Brigham younger, Discourse, 18, 1865, George big ass tranny D. Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from Pitman shorthand by LaJean Purcell Carruth; see also Brigham Young, in Journal of Discourses, 11:128 june.
  27. Orson F. Whitney, Life of Heber C. Kimball, an Apostle: the daddy and Founder associated with the BritishMission (Salt Lake City: Kimball Family, 1888), 338; see additionally Kiersten Olson, “‘The Embodiment of Strength and Endurance’: Vilate Murray Kimball (1806–1867), ” in Women of Faith into the Latter times, Volume One, 1775–1820, ed. Richard E. Turley Jr. And Brittany A. Chapman (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2011), 137.
  28. Lucy Walker Kimball, “Brief Biographical Sketch, ” 10–11, Church History Library, Salt Lake City.
  29. Sarah Granger Kimball, as an example, rejected plural marriage in Nauvoo but came west aided by the Saints. Most of the people who rejected plural wedding, including Emma Smith, later on became people in the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
  30. For instance, see “Evidence from Zina D. Huntington-Young, ” Saints’ Herald, Jan. 11, 1905, 29; Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, “Mary Elizabeth Rollins, ” Susa Young Gates Papers, Utah State Historical community.
  31. Gordon B. Hinckley, “ What Are individuals Asking about Us? ” Ensign, Nov. 1998; “Polygamy, ” Newsroom, subjects web page.
  32. Alma 26:35; Doctrine and Covenants 88:41; 1 Nephi 11:17.

The Church acknowledges the share of scholars into the historical content presented in this essay; their tasks are combined with authorization.

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